The 10 Biggest Revelations From Edward Snowden's Leaks

Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Image: Barton Gellman/Getty Images

One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.

At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.

Journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian won a Pulitzer Prize for reporting based on Snowden's information.

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每次我跟人说起“未来”,我都被他们对“未来是可知”的这一想法吓到。我的印象就是,大部分人都想象未来像书本一样,有一个结局:已经写好了、也可以读取。你只要快速地窥一眼这本书的最后几页就能知道。他们很难接受这最后几页根本没有写完。未来还没有发生、也没有计划好——也无法预知,因为它们还根本不存在。
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1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records

The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 中国建材行业一周大事记(9.21—9.27) in America.

This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.

The uproar caused by this first story has led President Barack Obama to endorse a reform to the program, and the House of Representatives to pass the first law that tries to change it.

2. PRISM

The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.

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PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.

PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.

3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world

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The studio says it has taken the step because the boy declined to remove a YouTube video he published which promoted how to use the software.
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Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.

4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders

U.S. President Barack Obama, right, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel are seated together at a G7 dinner in Brussels, on June 4. Their relationship has been tense since reports revealed that the NSA tapped Merkel's phone.

Historians now hope to dispel some of the myths about Richard, publicising evidence to refute claims that he killed the two young princes and focusing on what he achieved in his brief two-year reign, including the establishment of a system of bail and legal aid.
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家居行业涂料市场“傍名牌”成为潜规则

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和过去几年相比,2013年信心受到动摇的时候少了,但市场依然很容易受到影响。OppenheimerFunds的首席经济学家韦布曼(Jerry Webman)表示,虽然2013年的信心要强于以往,但全球各地也不都是这样。

The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.

Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.

5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything

XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.

6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security

Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 解析2015年中国家具消费趋势 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.

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Internet tycoons had heated discussions on the promise of artificial intelligence (AI) following the historic victory earlier this month for Google Inc's AI-powered AlphaGo over South Korean Go master Lee Se-dol.
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What deserves to be mentioned the most is, Uber and Tesla Motors Inc did not make it to the list. "Both Uber and Tesla do innovate, but not at a sufficient level to feature in the Top 100 list of innovative organizations around the globe as measured by patent metrics of volume, success, globalization and impact. They neither have sufficiently large portfolios to qualify for inclusion with less than 100 granted inventions during 2010-2014," Stembridge said.
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赫梅尔还指出,2008年油价飙升的局面(当时油价升破每桶140美元)将重现,但不太可能发生在2014年。他说,“油价将会上涨。”
注:本文转载自前十网,译者:Carrie
在这月初这封信上写着的地址是宾夕法尼亚大学的某个邮箱。
就像在领英上面快速的翻新简介一样,Foss说雇主们可能也会关注你突然一下子从推送小猫的GIF图和权力的游戏的剧透到推送一些具有思考意义的产业专注内容,参加Twitter上面找工作聊天。这些举动对你找工作当然有帮助,但是无益于找工作的隐秘性,所以还是要强调一下,慢慢来。
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“如果听到苹果CEO是同性恋,能帮助一些人努力直面自我,或者给一些感到孤独的人带来慰藉,或者激励人们坚持自己的平等权利,那么这值得我用个人隐私来交换,”他在为《彭博商业周刊》(Bloomberg Businessweek)的10月号撰文时写道。

7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed

The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.

Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.

3. The 2012 Ig Nobel Accoustics Prize
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We will do more to energize the non-public sector.
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8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links

When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.

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This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."

9. NSA collects text messages

It's not just about Internet data though. The NSA, following its unofficial motto of "collecting it all," intercepts 200 million text messages every day worldwide through a program called Dishfire.

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Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.

10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries

The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.

The Bahamas was revealed by The Intercept, Greenwald's new website, while the second was revealed by WikiLeaks, which protested The Intercept's decision to withhold the second country's name.

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Bonus: Edward Snowden's first in-person interview with an American news outlet

(H/T to the site Free Snowden, which has an extensive and detailed list of all the NSA revelations.)